|Title||Extreme spring conditions in the Arctic delay spring phenology of long-distance migratory songbirds|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Boelman, NT, Krause, JS, Sweet, SK, Chmura, HE, Perez, JH, Gough, L, Wingfield, JC|
|Pagination||69 - 80|
|Keywords||) Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus), Arctic seasonality, climate change, Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, phenology|
Arctic regions are warming rapidly, with extreme weather events increasing in frequency, duration, and intensity just as in other regions. Many studies have focused on how shifting seasonality in environmental conditions affects vegetation phenology, while far fewer have examined how the breeding phenology of arctic fauna responds. We studied two species of long-distance migratory songbirds, Lapland longspurs, Calcarius lapponicus, and white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, across five consecutive breeding seasons in northern Alaskan tundra. We aimed to understand how spring environmental conditions affected breeding cycle phenology, including the timing of arrival on breeding grounds, territory establishment, and clutch initiation. Spring temperatures, precipitation, and snow-free dates differed significantly among years, with 2013 characterized by unusually late snow cover. In response, we found a significant delay in breeding-cycle phenology for both study species in 2013 relative to other study years: the first bird observed was delayed by 6-10 days, with mean arrival by 3-6 days, territory establishment by 6-13 days, and clutch initiation by 4-10 days. Further, snow cover, temperature, and precipitation during the territory establishment period were important predictors of clutch initiation dates for both species. These findings suggest that Arctic-breeding passerine communities may have the flexibility required to adjust breeding phenology in response to the increasingly extreme and unpredictable environmental conditions-although future generations may encounter conditions that exceed their current range of phenological flexibility.