Ledum palustre

Burn Terrestrial Data
Title Abstract DOI
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass of samples from the moderately burned site at Anaktuvuk River, Alaska
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass were measured in 2011 from three sites at and around the Anaktuvuk River Burn: severely burned, moderately burned and unburned. These samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen concentrations.
10.6073/pasta/6646ac57a7397b9c8d1a2dc3c95a566c
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass of samples from the severely burned site of the Anaktuvuk River fire, Alaska
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass were measured in 2011 from three sites at and around the Anaktuvuk River Burn: severely burned, moderately burned and unburned. These samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen concentrations.
10.6073/pasta/7f609c982e2e6880f63bab4c3bd5af8d
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass of samples from the unburned control site near the Anaktuvuk River fire scar.
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass were measured in 2011 from three sites at and around the Anaktuvuk River Burn: severely burned, moderately burned and unburned. These samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen concentrations.
10.6073/pasta/18fcdcaf43451b70610d55da6475b397
Point-frame measurments from a nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and N+P fertilization experiment at the 2007 Anaktuvuk River, Alaska, USA fire scar during the 2016-2019 growing seasons
This file contains point-frame measurements from a nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and N+P fertilization experiment established in the southern section of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire in 2016 at a severely burned site and an unburned site. Pin-vegetation contact was recorded using a 0.75 m2 frame with 41 evenly spaced pin-drop points. Data was collected once during the height of the  growing season in 2016 (when fertilization began) 2017, 2018 and 2019.  This data was used to measure the... more
10.6073/pasta/c28d78e8a3c11b52b38cf1f1c01dc671
root_dynamics data
Title Abstract DOI
13C and 15N Content in Arctic Tussock Tundra and Wet Sedge Vegetation
This file contains 13C and 15N content from tussock tundra and wet sedge vegetation collected from experiemental plots during the years 2001-2006.
10.6073/pasta/ee1d007696eba422c9914f7cfd6f6f4d
14C Uptake by Arctic Tussock Tundra Vegetation from 2002-2006
This file contains the 14C content of tussock tundra vegetation from 2002-2006. The 14C labeling occurred the summer of 2002.
10.6073/pasta/4950b6f3074120dafba5c46aa7f6991f
14C Uptake by Arctic Wet Sedge Vegetation from 2002-2005
This file contains the 14C content of tussock tundra vegetation from 2002-2005. The 14C labeling occurred the summer of 2002.
10.6073/pasta/86c2e3b0f4c442aa4995f1b8e4eafd73
Terrestrial Biomass
Title Abstract DOI
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass in the Arctic LTER moist acidic tussock tundra experimental plots, 2006, Toolik Lake, Alaska
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass, percent nitrogen, and percent carbon were measured in the Arctic LTER moist acidic tundra experimental plots. Treatments included control, and nitrogen and phosphorus amended plots for 10 years, and exclosure plots with and without added nitrogen and phosphorus.
10.6073/pasta/5587a6f1bfc4f359c011139b2977d842
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass in the Arctic LTER dry heath tundra experimental plots, 2006, Toolik Lake, Alaska
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass, percent nitrogen, and percent carbon were measured in the Arctic LTER dry heath tundra experimental plots. Treatments included control, and nitrogen and phosphorus amended plots for 10 years, and exclosure plots with and without added nitrogen and phosphorus.
10.6073/pasta/447aec542efb8fd505b85f90c35ea47e
Above ground plant and belowground stem biomass in moist acidic and non-acidic tussock tundra experimental sites, 2001, Arctic LTER, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Above ground plant and belowground stem biomass was measured in moist acidic and non-acidic tussock tundra experimental sites. Treatments sampled were control plots and plots amended with nitrogen and phosphorus.
10.6073/pasta/4195a17564c031686d5b95b551119fd5
Percent carbon, percent nitrogen, del13C and del15N of above ground plant and belowground stem biomass samples from experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra, 2000, Arctic LTER, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Percent carbon, percent nitrogen, del13C and del15N were measured from above ground plant and belowground stem biomass samples from experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra. Biomass data are in 2000lgshttbm.dat.
10.6073/pasta/bdb3eeabb3b26075f0841440e8f92d3a
June and August plant biomass in mesic acidic tussock tundra, 1992, Arctic LTER, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Quadrats (20cm x 20cm squares) along a line (block) were collected for plant biomass in mesic tussock tundra. In the lab each quadrat was separated into individual species, new and old aboveground and belowground biomass. Two harvests were completed, June and a late July. These are control plots from an experiment setup for a 15N experiment.
10.6073/pasta/e4c9bbe7ff8627cf706780e48aa3462a
Arctic LTER 1982: Biomass in tussock tundra near Toolik Lake North Slope AK (68 degrees 38N, 149derees 34W).
Biomass in tussock tundra near Toolik Lake North Slope AK (68 degrees 38N, 149derees 34W). There were three harvests;Late May-early June; Late July-early August; Late August-early September. See Shaver and Chapin (Ecological Monographs, 61(1), 1991 pp.1-31.
10.6073/pasta/c0d17c3371e88847208dbc0b35f2f8f5
Biomass from six vegetation types along a toposequence on a floodplain terrace of the Sagavanirktok River, Alaswka,1988, Arctic LTER.
Biomass was harvested from six vegetation types along a toposequence on a floodplain terrace of the Sagavanirktok River in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range , Alaska (68degrees 46' N, 148 degrees 51' W 50m). The vegetation sites are; upland tussock tundra, "hilltop heath", a "hillslope shrub-lupine", a "footslope Equisetum", a wet sedge tundra, and a "riverside willow".
10.6073/pasta/b436a45e56aca0656484a308e4e6f12c
Early July plant biomass in mesic acidic tussock tundra, 1993, Arctic LTER, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Quadrats (20cm x 20cm squares) along a line (block) were collected for plant biomass in mesic acidic tussock tundra. Each quadrat was separated into individual species, new and old aboveground and belowground biomass. The harvest occurred in early July to coincide with a 15N plant and soil harvest.
10.6073/pasta/d72ed65f521fac34139850ef30bef72a
Quadrats were harvested for aboveground biomass from eight plots within a tussock, watertrack, and snowbed community at 3 sites - acidic tundra and nonacidic tundra near Arctic LTER Toolik Plots and acidic tundra near Sagwon,Arctic LTER 1997.
Quadrats were harvested for aboveground biomass from eight plots within a tussock, watertrack, and snowbed community at 3 sites - acidic tundra near Toolik (site of acidic LTER plots), nonacidic tundra near Toolik Lake(site of non-acidic LTER plots), and acidic tundra near Sagwon. All vascular species were sorted, divided into new and old growth, dried, and weighed. Lichens were separated by genus in all quadrats. In half of the quadrats (n=4), mosses were separated by species. Moss and... more
10.6073/pasta/cf45e059c576273ec58ce24769793f28
Leaf area for select species was measured in arctic tundra experimental sites from late June into early August,Toolik Field Sattion, Alaska, Arctic LTER 2000.
Leaf area for select species was measured in arctic tundra experimental sites from late June into early August. Measurements were made in acidic and non acidic tussock tundra and in shrub tundra in control and fertilized plots.
10.6073/pasta/13915ef410067ef23bad0faff678319c
Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska.
Above ground plant biomass was measured in a tussock tundra experimental site. The plots were set up in 1981 and have been harvested in previous years (See Shaver and Chapin Ecological Monographs, 61(1), 1991 pp.1-31.) This file contains the biomass numbers for each harvested quadrat.
10.6073/pasta/668dc98c3dbd83a308f0f38fb833f23e
Plant biomass in moist acidic tussock tundra experimental small mammal exclosures, 1999 Arctic LTER Toolik, Alaska.
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass was measured in Arctic LTER tussock tundra experimental small mammal exclosures. Treatments included Control, Nitrogen plus Phosphorus with both fenced and unfenced plots. In addition a moist non-acidic tussock tundra site was harvested. Leaf areas were also measured for each quadrat but are in a separate file.
10.6073/pasta/3180bd090124c3a0d7a498e95685dfac
A harvest was conducted to determine productivity of rare species not found in at least 4 quadrats per site in a separate small quadrat aboveground biomass harvest, Arctic LTER 1997.
A harvest was conducted to determine productivity of rare species not found in at least 4 quadrats per site in a separate small quadrat aboveground biomass harvest (see 97lg3sbm.txt). Harvests occurred in a tussock, watertrack, and snowbed community at 3 sites - acidic tundra near Toolik (site of acidic LTER plots), nonacidic tundra near Toolik Lake(site of non-acidic LTER plots), and acidic tundra near Sagwon. Moss and lichen data are presented by species elsewhere (see 97lgmosslichen).
10.6073/pasta/c9d934f0c88b3f4545f997fe6dfd1a2e
Seasonal plant biomass moist acidic tussock tundra, 1983, Arctic LTER, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Biomass in tussock tundra experimental plots near Toolik Lake, North Slope, AK (68 degrees 38N, 149derees 34W). There were five harvests in 1983. This file is the May 21-22, 1983 harvest.
10.6073/pasta/f15ef49234144987471d7a10d86d8bc3
Biomass in heath tundra near Toolik Lake North Slope AK (68 degrees 38N, 149derees 34W), 1982.
Biomass in heath tundra near Toolik Lake North Slope AK (68 degrees 38N, 149derees 34W). .There were three harvests;Late May-early June; Late July-early August; Late August-early September. See Shaver and Chapin (Ecological Monographs, 61(1), 1991 pp.1-31.
10.6073/pasta/5822d635c5094a1aa9aba29f0692ea49
Above ground plant biomass in a mesic acidic tussock tundra experimental site from 1982 to 2000 Arctic LTER, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Above ground plant biomass and leaf area were measured in a moist acidic tussock tundra experimental site. The plots were set up in 1981 and have been harvested in periodical (See Shaver and Chapin Ecological Monographs, 61(1), 1991 pp.1-31. Mack, et al, Nature 2004 431:440-443) This file contains the biomass numbers for each harvested quadrat and per cent carbon and nitrogen summaries for harvests through 2000. Leaf area data is presented in other data files (see http://ecosystems.mbl.... more
10.6073/pasta/c3ef07e6ed81c1fc33e9bc20aff07093
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass in the Arctic LTER acidic tussock tundra experimental plots, 2002, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Above ground plant and below ground stem biomass was measured in the Arctic LTER acidic tussock tundra experimental plots. Treatments included control, nitrogen plus phosphorus amended plots for either 6 or 13 years and vole exclosure plots with or without amends of nitrogen and phosphorus.
10.6073/pasta/b227fa1d98ed466ea5fc3816ef5c8ba2
Above ground plant biomass a moist acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1984, Acric LTER, Toolik Lake, Alaska.
Above ground plant biomass was measured in a tussock tundra experimental site. The plots were set up in 1981 and have been harvested in previous years (See Shaver and Chapin Ecological Monographs, 61(1), 1991 pp.1-31.) This file is the July 26-27, 1984 harvest of the controls and nitrogen + phosphorus treatments.
10.6073/pasta/08a91cb2697f7cdc82d654e82b53c5c5
Aboveground plant and belowground stem biomass were measured in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tussock tundra experimental plots, Toolik Field Station, Alaska, Arctic LTER 2000.
Aboveground plant and belowground stem biomass were measured in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tussock tundra experimental plots. Treatments at the acidic site include control and nitrogen (N) plus phosphorus (P) amendments; treatments at the non-acidic site include N, P, N+P, greenhouse warming, and greenhouse+N+P.
Note:  Version 8 corrected an error where Carex vaginata was listed twice under treatment of "Nitrogen Phosphorus".  The tissues with 8 quadrats were "Greenhouse"  treatment.
10.6073/pasta/6e0b4ea291f4b5940b2b8b80af917bd5
AON Isotopes
Title Abstract DOI
Carbon and nitrogen isotopes and concentrations in terrestrial plants from a six-year (2006-2012) fertilization experiment at the Arctic LTER, Toolik Field Station, Alaska.
The data set describes stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and carbon and nitrogen concentrations from an August 2012 pluck of a fertilization experiment begun in 2006. Fertilization was with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Fertilization levels included control, F2, F5, and F10, with F2 corresponding to yearly additions of 2 g/m2 N and 1 g/m2 P, F5 corresponding to yearly additions of 5 g/m2 N and 2.5 g/m2 P, and F10 corresponding to yearly additions of 10 g/m2 N and 5 g/m2 P. After... more
10.6073/pasta/011d1ba5f14fc9057dd67ff201174543
Ecotypes Disturbance experiments
Title Abstract DOI
Effects of shading on tundra vegetation senescence at Toolik Lake, Coldfoot, Sagwon - Alaska 2016
Data on the effects of shading tundra vegetation from the sun when it is low in on the horizon in the north. If light quality was altered through shading, phenology might be affected. Senescence (color change) was measured for the common tundra species.
10.6073/pasta/52dcd21509c4d8638ccfb5148b2ac119
Terrestrial Plant Communities and Plant Species List
Title Abstract DOI
2012 relative percent cover of plant species in LTER moist acidic tundra experimental plots and in new experimental plots established in 2006.
This dataset is out of date and will be deleted. The updated data is available in these multiyear files:
Gough, L. 2019. Relative percent cover of plant species for years 2012-2017 in the Arctic Long-term Ecological Research (ARC-LTER) 1989 moist acidic tundra (MAT89) experimental plots, Toolik Field Station, Alaska. Environmental Data Initiative. http://dx.doi.org/10.6073/pasta/f31def760db3f8e6cfee5fee07cc693e(link is external)

Gough, L. 2021. Relative percent cover of plant species... more
10.6073/pasta/c8c4704101d870af605287de200ff43e
2011 relative percent cover of plant species in LTER moist acidic tundra experimental plots and in new experimental plots established in 2006.
In 2011, relative percent cover of plant species was measured in LTER moist acidic tundra experimental plots and in new experimental plots established in 2006.
10.6073/pasta/ac0b52cfafad29a666c71299fc6085b7
2010 relative percent cover of plant species in LTER moist acidic, dry heath, and moist non-acidic tundra experimental plots; and in new experimental plots established in 2006.
In 2010, Relative percent cover of plant species was measured in the Arctic LTER's experimental and control plots across several habitats: moist acidic, dry heath, and moist non-acidic tundra; in new variable (low) nutrient addition experimental plots established in 2006; and for Sagavanirktok River toposequence plots in tussock and heath tundra.
10.6073/pasta/9a838fd30e3fdde2ea9acba37afb2bfa
Arctic LTER 2007: Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic tussock and dry heath tundra.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots at Toolik field station in moist acidic tussock and dry heath tundra.
10.6073/pasta/fec6fbb53dafa0c6777110fa2fcda507
Relative percent cover of plant species in LTER moist acidic, dry heath, and moist non-acidic tundra experimental plots; in new experimental plots established in 2006; and for Sagavanirktok River plots in tussock and heath tundra, Norht Slope Alaska 2008.
In 2008, Relative percent cover of plant species was measured in the Arctic LTER's experimental and control plots across several habitats: moist acidic, dry heath, and moist non-acidic tundra; in new variable (low) nutrient addition experimental plots established in 2006; and for Sagavanirktok River toposequence plots in tussock and heath tundra.
10.6073/pasta/1553e86b8f7ebcc03b757fccc17cc13f
Arctic 2006: Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic, dry heath and moist non-acidic tundra, and for Sagavanirktok River plots in tussock and heath tundra.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots at Toolik field station in moist acidic and moist non acidic tussock tundra, and dry heath tundra, and on Sagavanirktok River toposequence plots in tussock and heath tundra.
10.6073/pasta/7b0a8419c87c05ec1fe4fb708902d428
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic, dry heath and moist non-acidic tundra, and for Sagavanirktok River plots in tussock and heath tundra, North Slope Alaska 2004.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots at Toolik field station in moist acidic and moist non acidic tussock tundra, and dry heath tundra, and on Sagavanirktok River toposequence plots in tussock and heath tundra.
10.6073/pasta/30f0822d9a7d4e2980300052a67e60b1
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra, Toolik Field Station, Alaska, Arctic LTER 1999.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra, Toolik Field Station, Alaska, Arctic LTER 1999.
10.6073/pasta/d780d20c2fbee479d46c0f99fcf26c9a
Arctic LTER 2005: Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic, moist non-acidic and dry heath tundra.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots at Toolik field station in moist acidic and moist non acidic tussock tundra, and dry heath tundra.
10.6073/pasta/c7344c7f8af925285bfb25632c545649
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra, Toolik Field Station, Alaska 2002
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra.
10.6073/pasta/2185fb606bfb9e55d50e4fe670c6298a
Vascular plant species list, by quadrat, for harvests of tussock , wet sedge and dry heath tundra and a toposequence which included "shrub/lupine," "riverside willow" and "footslope Equisetum" communities North Slope Alaska, Arctic LTER 1983-1996.
Vascular plant species list, by quadrat, for harvests of tussock tundra, wet sedge tundra, dry heath tundra, and a toposequence which also included "shrub/lupine," "riverside willow" and "footslope Equisetum" communities. Includes results of long-term nutrient enrichment, increased temperature, and shade houses in selected tundra types.
10.6073/pasta/19d4931588b100dc2a0abc23d849e873
Arctic LTER 2001: Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra.
10.6073/pasta/d0eff382d7c0564df5e5524e4a4e65a9
Arctic LTER 2000: Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and moist non-acidic tundra.
10.6073/pasta/b9cc1f0f4215535754a4acd8e29bfc0c
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots in moist acidic and non-acidic tundra, Arctic LTER Toolik Field Station, Alaska 2013.
Relative percent cover was measured for plant species on Arctic LTER experimental plots at Toolik field station in moist acidic and non-acidic tundra. 
10.6073/pasta/8a2999c9ed297a184aaca7057e1ae177
Relative percent cover of plant species in low nutrient LTER moist acidic tundra experimental plots (MAT06) established in 2006 for years 2008, 2010-2020, Arctic LTER Toolik Field Station Alaska.
Relative percent cover of plant species was measured in low nutrient LTER moist acidic tundra experimental plots (MAT06). Treatments include a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorus additions along with ammonium and nitrate alone.
10.6073/pasta/3b28ed94fe7916e840ff3313dbe3450c
Relative percent cover of plant species for 2014 in LTER moist acidic tundra experimental plots established in 1981, Arctic LTER Toolik Field Station, Alaska
Relative percent cover of plant species was measured in moist acidic tundra experimental plots begun in 1981 in 2014. Treatments include Control and Nitrogen and Phosphorus.
10.6073/pasta/f619b425d2997d9f2f831cff207a1819
Relative percent cover of plant species for years 2013 2014 2016 2017 in LTER dry heath tundra experimental plots established in 1989, Arctic LTER Toolik, Field Station Alaska
Relative percent cover of plant species was measured in Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (ARC-LTER) Dry Heath experimental plots. Treatments include Nitrogen Phosphorus (NP), and Control (CT), Nitrogen Phosphorus Unfenced (NFNP), Nitrogen Phosphorus Small Fenced (SFNP), Nitrogen Phosphorus Large Fenced (LFNP), Control (CT), Control Small Fenced (CTSF), and Control Large Fenced (LFCT).
10.6073/pasta/25d3f0db55e9df6f99fc3e9596433090
Relative percent cover of plant species for years 2012-2017 in the Arctic Long-term Ecological Research (ARC-LTER) 1989 moist acidic tundra (MAT89) experimental plots, Toolik Field Station, Alaska.
Relative percent cover of plant species was measured in ARC-LTER 1989 moist acidic tundra experimental plots. Treatments include Control (CT), Nitrogen Phosphorus (NP), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Greenhouse Control (GHCT). In 1996 on unassigned plots, an experiment that manipulate herbivory presence and nutrients was started. Treatments include Control Unfenced (NFCT), Nitrogen Phosphorus Unfenced (NFNP), and Small Fenced Control (CTSF). Not all treatments were measured each year.
10.6073/pasta/f31def760db3f8e6cfee5fee07cc693e
Terrestrial Plant Phenological and Growth Data
Title Abstract DOI
Phenological stages of evergeen plants were observed at a long term experimental moist tussock tundra site (Arctic LTER) 1996 near Toolik Lake, AK.
Phenological stages of evergeen plants were observed at a long term experimental moist acidic tussock tundra (Arctic LTER) in 1996 near Toolik Lake, AK. Also, ITEX maximum growth measurements were recorded on August 19th (moist tussock tundra). Experimental treatments at each site included factorial NxP, greenhouse and shadehouse and were begun in 1989. See 96gsphdc and 96gsphsg for phenological data on deciduous and sedge species.
10.6073/pasta/b9499790f4f7cb3e3fe7b91531f732f6
Stems were measured, and aged from Ledum palustre and Salix pulchra on LTER Moist Acidic Tussock Tundra 1981 plots summer 1990, Toolik Lake Filed Station, AK.
Stems were measured, and aged from Ledum palustre and Salix pulchra species on treated plots at Toolik Lake, AK. Stem secondary growth in per cent per year was estimated from the slope of weight per unit length vs. age.
10.6073/pasta/be23ab065016ae190ff2e6ead5f4a9ad
Modeling Data
Title Abstract DOI
Long-term changes in tundra carbon balance following wildfire, climate change and potential nutrient addition, a modeling analysis.
A study investigating the mechanisms that control long-term response of tussock tundra to fire and to increases in air temperature, CO2, nitrogen deposition and phosphorus weathering. The MBL MEL was used to simulate the recovery of three types of tussock tundra, unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned in response to changes in climate and nutrient additions. The simulations indicate that the recovery of nutrients lost during wildfire is difficult under a warming climate because... more
10.6073/pasta/3c28308d774de3b01a416bd4cb597067
Terrestrial Soil Properties
Title Abstract DOI
Mass, C, N, and lignin from litter decomposed across a shrub gradient and with snow manipulations near Toolik Field Station between 2003 and 2009.
In arctic tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, we incubated a common substrate in a snow addition experiment to test whether snow accumulation around arctic deciduous shrubs altered the environment enough to increase litter decomposition rates. We compared the influence of litter quality on the rate of litter and N loss by decomposing litter from four different plant functional types in a common site. We used aboveground net primary production values and estimated k values from our... more
10.6073/pasta/badba3735996e3de4cd02ee4bd1cfd5c
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